H.R. 4686, Cambodia Democracy Act of 2021
H.R. 4686 would require the President to impose sanctions on foreign persons he determines have engaged in violating human rights and undermining democracy in Cambodia and to report to the Congress on those actions. On the basis of information about the costs to prepare similar reports, CBO estimates that satisfying the reporting requirement would cost less than $500,000 over the 2021-2026 period. Such spending would be subject to the availability of appropriated funds.
The Administration has existing authority to sanction individuals responsible for violating human rights and undermining democracy in foreign countries, including Cambodia. If enactment of the bill leads the Administration to broaden those sanctions, more people would be denied visas by the Department of State, resulting in an insignificant decrease in revenues from fees. Although most visa fees are retained by the Department of State and spent without further appropriation, some collections are deposited into the Treasury as revenues. Denying foreign nationals entry into the United States also would reduce direct spending on federal benefits (emergency Medicaid or federal subsidies for health insurance, for example) for which those people might otherwise be eligible.
Sanctions under the bill also would increase the number of people who are subject to civil or criminal monetary penalties. Those penalties are recorded as revenues, and a portion can be spent without further appropriation. In addition, the bill would block transactions in certain assets and property that are in the United States or that come under the control of people in the United States.